Eritrea country profile
- 15 December 2015
- From the section Africa
Eritrea won independence from Ethiopia in 1993 after a 30-year war.
Bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia and Djibouti, it occupies a strategic area in the Horn of Africa but remains one of the most secretive states in the world.
Tensions with Ethiopia remain high across a closed and heavily fortified border. The perceived threat of war is said to have been used by the government to clamp down on society.
A one-party state, Eritrea's 1997 constitution was never been fully implemented. Military conscription is mandatory and indefinite, according to Amnesty International.
Prolonged periods of conflict and severe drought have adversely affected Eritrea's agriculture-based economy and it remains one of the poorest countries in Africa.
In a damning report into human rights abuses, the UN accused the government of crimes against humanity. By UN estimates, hundreds of thousands of Eritreans have fled the country in recent years, making the perilous journey across the Sahara and the Mediterranean to Europe.
The State of Eritrea
Population 5.6 million
Area 117,400 sq km (45,300 sq miles)
Major languages Tigrinya, Tigre, Arabic, English
Major religions Islam, Christianity
Life expectancy 60 years (men), 64 years (women)
UN, World Bank
President: Isaias Afewerki
President Isaias Afewerki has governed Eritrea since it won independence from Ethiopia in 1993. His People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDF) is the sole political party.
Presidential elections planned for 1997 never took place and a constitution ratified in the same year has never been implemented.
Mr Isaias has been criticised for failing to introduce democratic reforms.
Born in 1946 in Asmara, Mr Isaias studied engineering at the University of Addis Ababa but left in 1966 to join the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF).
In 1970 he co-founded the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) and in 1987 was elected its secretary-general. When the EPLF defeated Ethiopian forces in 1991, Mr Isaias was appointed head of a provisional government.
Following the 1993 vote on independence, he was elected president of Eritrea and chairman of the National Assembly, giving him control of both executive and legislative branches of government.
Media beyond the state sanctioned newspapers and TV are non-existent. International journalists are routinely refused access. Media watchdog Reporters Without Borders (RSF) in its 2015 World Press Freedom Index placed Eritrea last behind North Korea.
Outlets run by Eritreans overseas – mainly in Europe, North America and Australia – provide alternative sources of information but their reach and influence inside Eritrea are limited, not least because of very low levels of internet access.
Some key dates in Eritrea's history:
300-600 – Present-day Eritrea forms part of the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum.
1889-1941 – Italy colonises Eritrea.
1941-52 – British forces occupy and take over administration of Eritrea.
1952 – UN establishes Eritrea as an autonomous region within Ethiopia.
1962 – Ethiopia annexes Eritrea, triggering a 30-year war.
1991 – Eritrean People's Liberation Front wins war of independence against Ethiopia.
1993 – Eritrea votes for independence from Ethiopia in a UN-sponsored referendum.
1997 – Transition – Constitution is ratified written but never implemented.
1998-2000 – Border war with Ethiopia. Tens of thousands are reportedly killed.
2008 – Brief border war with Djibouti over disputed territory.
2009 – UN imposes sanctions on Eritrea for its alleged support of Islamist insurgents in Somalia.
2015 – UN report accuses the Eritrean government of crimes against humanity.