The Himalayan region of Kashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for over six decades.
Since India’s partition and the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the nuclear-armed neighbours have fought three wars over the Muslim-majority territory, which both claim in full but control in part.
Today it remains one of the most militarised zones in the world. China administers parts of the territory.
Reporting on Kashmir from both India and Pakistan mainstream media is deeply politicized and reflects the tension between the two countries.
Media in Indian-administered Kashmir are generally split between pro- and anti-secessionist. Local journalists work under strict curfews and also face threats from militant groups. Internet access is sporadic and text messaging services are regularly blocked.
In Pakistani-controlled Kashmir, the media are used mainly for propaganda purposes, mainly to highlight the alleged human rights violations in Indian-administered Kashmir.
Key dates in Kashmir’s history:
1846 – Creation of the princely state of Kashmir.
1947-8 – Kashmir’s Maharaja hesitates over whether to join India or Pakistan, prompting the two countries to go to war over the territory.
1949 – Kashmir is partitioned between India and Pakistan, with a ceasefire line agreed.
1962 – China defeats India in a brief war in a dispute over the Aksai Chin border area.
1965 – Second Indo-Pakistan war over Kashmir ends in a ceasefire.
Rise of Kashmiri nationalism: Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front is founded with the aim of forming an independent state through the reunification of Indian-administered and Pakistan-administered Kashmir.
1972 – Simla Agreement: India and Pakistan formalise the ceasefire line as the Line of Control as part of new resolve to negotiate differences after their war which ended in Bangladesh splitting from Pakistan.
1980-90s – Kashmir insurgency: Discontent over Indian rule leads to armed resistance, mass protests and a rise in Pakistan-backed militant groups. Ten of thousands of people are killed.
1999 – India and Pakistan engage in a brief conflict after militants cross the Line of Control into the Indian-administered district of Kargil.
2008 – India and Pakistan open trade route across the Line of Control for the first time in six decades.
2010 – Anti-India protests in Indian-administered Kashmir in which over 100 youths are killed.
2015 – Political watershed: Elections in Jammu and Kashmir see India’s ruling Hindu nationalist BJP party emerge as a major political player in the region for the first time when it forms part of a coalition government with the regional Muslim People’s Democratic Party.
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